Behold, the recently updated AstroMundus PhD Guide! Credit is also due to the IAYC Alumni who helped a lot. I felt that I should share this on here, rather than leaving it to collect dust.
Note: for the US and Canada, here is an incredibly useful list of all the universities which do and do not require the GRE.
I also found these guides to be rather good. There is one about conferences, and another is a guide on writing a PhD Thesis.
As always, let me know if anything is missing.
Studentships during your PhD
ESO – Spend 1-2 years with ESO, either in Germany or Chile, as a part of your PhD.
ING – The Isaac Newton Group Support and Research Studentship Programme offers astronomy and astrophysics PhD, MSc and undergraduate students the unique opportunity to spend one year at ING as INT support astronomers, and to be involved in ING projects related to instrumental, optical, or software development, improvement and/or characterisation.
Greenberg Fellowship – The Greenberg foundation offers a PhD student from a developing country the possibility of staying 9 months in the Sackler laboratory.